By Regis B. Kelly, Zach W. Hall (auth.), Jeremy Brockes (eds.)
Neuroimmunology might be outlined because the software of immunological how you can difficulties in neurobiology yet one of these definition is so all encompassing as to be unhelpful. it's not a accurately circumscribed self-discipline however it turns out invaluable on the outset to indicate to 3 of the foremost parts of job. One relatively early use of the time period was once in reference to reviews at the immune reaction to antigens within the frightened method. This comprises subject matters comparable to autoimmunity within the principal and peripheral frightened sys tems, the reaction to neural tumors or viral infections, and the im munopathology of such techniques. even supposing now not on the leading edge of the presently trendy preoccupation with neuroimmunology, this quarter is still a necessary and fascinating one from either medical and easy views. A moment very energetic quarter is the exploitation of antibodies to iden tified elements of neural cells, and particularly to these molecules concerned as neurotransmitters, in transmitter synthesis and breakdown, and as synaptic receptors. The immunohistochemical detection of those antigens has ended in new insights into the useful association of the fearful method, and connection with such reviews is nearly a sz'ne qua non for discussions of so much principal and peripheral synapses.
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Extra info for Neuroimmunology
In muscle a second subunit, shown by peptide mapping to a similar to the first, is also labeled by MBTA. In membranes from Torpedo, but not Regis B. Kelly and Zach W. Hall 18 Electrophorus or muscle, the AChR exists in the membranes as a dimer linked by disulfide bonds between subunits. Further details of AChR structure and regulation are given in two recent reviews (Fambrough, 1979; Karlin, 1980). The AChR is also one of the membrane proteins whose immunology has been most thoroughly explored.
Two ACh binding sites and two toxin binding sites are found per 250,000 mol. wt. The AChRs of eel electric organ and of muscle appear to have analogous subunit structures to that of Torpedo AChR. Each has four different polypeptide chains with molecular weights that are roughly similar to those seen in Torpedo; in both cases the lowest-molecular-weight subunit is labeled by MBTA. In muscle a second subunit, shown by peptide mapping to a similar to the first, is also labeled by MBTA. In membranes from Torpedo, but not Regis B.
It is already clear from these early results that immunological methods will be a powerful tool in unraveling the structure and the functional role of cytoskeletal elements at the neuromuscular junction. The use of mAbs will undoubtedly lead to the identification of new proteins; we look to this, and to the extension of localization studies to the ultrastructural level for future advances. Immunology of the Neuromuscular Junction 7. 37 CONCLUSION Antibodies can be made that specifically recognize elements of the neuromuscular junction.