By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)
Biological keep watch over is without doubt one of the so much promising tools for keep an eye on of pests (including vectors), illnesses and weeds. during this ebook ecological and societal elements are for the 1st time taken care of jointly. In an ecological technique the purpose is to judge the importance of convinced organic homes like biodiversity and average habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic keep an eye on from an natural (or ecological) farming perspective. In a societal method phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are acknowledged as major for organic construction and human welfare.
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Additional info for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control
1999). , 2002). Today, products like Serenade® or Biopro® with B. subtilis as the active ingredient are registered and used by fruit growers to prevent fire blight. 5. Limits of biocontrol in organic apple production Eilenberg et al. (2001) suggest a stringent terminology of classical, inoculation, inundation and conservation biocontrol (see table 1). Organic fruit growers try to do best with cultural practices and conservation biocontrol measures (which they collectively call “indirect measures”) to protect and enhance pest antagonists.
2. Principle of prevention Organic farming considers problems with pests, diseases or parasites as indicators of an inadequate management system. Therefore, the main challenge in organic production is to optimize the management system, including (but not restricted to) all measures by which the crops or animals become more healthy, or the living conditions for pests and diseases become less favourable. This approach called ‘indirect crop protection’ or ‘preventive animal-health management’ is typical for organic farming.
2. Case study: importance of biological control in organic apple orchards Organic apple growers face the same severe plant protection problems as their colleagues in conventional or integrated pest management systems: apple scab, powdery mildew, fire blight, codling moth and rosy apple aphid. But, in contrary to them, the organic farmers have a very limited range of approved products to control these problems. Thus, the approaches to pest management in organic apple orchards rely largely on preventative measures as direct, or reactive control methods are rare.