By Robert Carlson
The sequence builds an intensive choice of top of the range descriptions of languages all over the world. each one quantity bargains a accomplished grammatical description of a unmarried language including totally analyzed pattern texts and, if applicable, a glossary and different proper details that is to be had at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language kinfolk or region, and even if designated recognition is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and beneficial remedies of higher recognized languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the one criterion is a excessive usual of medical caliber.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Supyire
Those roots exhibiting this alternation in Farakala are: (31) kyi [k(i] G3P. ] Secondary release between a velar stop and /a/ is phonetically realized as a velar fricative [x] or [γ]: (33) kyara meat gyaanra goudge [kxara] 20 cf. kare go [kare] [gYa:ra] Secondary release between IVJ and lul is a very slight velar affrication which sounds like light aspiration. It is symbolized [ x ] here. Before the other low vowels, secondary release is a labio-velar approximant [w]: [k x u:lo] cf. lacking [ku:r)2] kwooro snore [k w o:ro] cf.
The voiceless fricatives are much more common than the voiced ones, and as we shall presently see, most of the latter can be derived from the former. Isl and Ifl are considerably more common than /sh/. 12 No verb begins with a voiced fricative. 1. g. 13 The examples below illustrate this process with the future prefix N- and compounds: (13) a. U s/he si Ν ( -fc. FUT ' run => U si vi. ' U she si Ν -si. birth Usiz). ' U s/he si Ν -shya. FUT go U si zhyä. ' b. 2. Rhotacization When an Is/ beginning an unstressed syllable comes to follow a stressed syllable, it changes to [r].
Kan cedgi ά. DEF to Cedgi ä kare ä kwo. DEF PERF go SC finish Cedqa a kära a kwd. ' U pye ä she NEG PERF Upye a kärä έηά ä? ' kare anf ä? Q As shown here, most vowel-initial clitics begin with /a/. 6 below. The vowels of third person anaphoric pronouns are unstressed, and most of these assimilate as expected (exceptions will be dealt with in the next section): (72) Ku it(G2S) ä ßwo. PERF good => Ka äßwo. ' Li it(G3S) ä β wo. PERF good La ä β wo. 5. Approximant formation When three of the eight anaphoric pronouns precede a vowel-initial clitic, they do not allow the assimilation of their vowels as described above.